Small Turkeys Are In Demand As Americans Downsize At Thanksgiving

Nov 21, 2020
Originally published on November 21, 2020 7:56 am

Rachel and Joe Shenk raise turkeys on a small farm in Newport, N.C. The turkeys are a traditional commercial breed known as Broad Breasted Whites that they raise just for Thanksgiving.

"They're not very smart, but they make up for that by being really friendly and interesting," Joe said. The birds are a favorite of the Shenk family, and they respond specifically to Joe's gobble calls, echoing them back to him.

The couple will harvest the birds the weekend before Thanksgiving, but for weeks now, they've been fielding orders.

"We probably have about 10 people that have asked like, 'I want the smallest turkey you have,' " Rachel said. They raised approximately 70 turkeys this year.

As pandemic restrictions tighten across the U.S., many families are changing the way they're setting the table for Thanksgiving. That means everything from the size of the gathering to the size of the turkey might look different this year.

Rachel Shenk, right, and her 3-year-old son, Mason Shenk, step into the turkey enclosure on their family farm in Newport, N.C. Rachel and her husband Joe Shenk started their farm in 2017 with a desire to create a life that allowed them to focus on working together as a family. They now farm turkeys, chickens, and pigs.
Madeline Gray for NPR

Tonya Nash can count on one hand the number of family Thanksgivings she's missed. She lives in Atlanta with her husband, Jamie, and two sons. But every year, they pile into the car and make the 12-hour drive to Houston to celebrate with her husband's large, extended family.

That big family is the reason they're staying home this November. Her youngest son was recently diagnosed with a severe form of epilepsy that puts him at high risk for complications from COVID-19.

A lot of things will be different about their family celebration this year. Nash is determined to have turkey, even if she's the only one eating it. Her husband and sons aren't big fans.

"You have to have turkey on Thanksgiving," said Nash, so she got a small turkey breast — a far cry from the nearly 20-lb turkey they might have in Houston.

Celebrating with just immediate family

She's not the only one downsizing.

Butterball, the company that produces Butterball turkeys, surveyed about 1,000 adults in September. They found that 30% plan to celebrate with just their immediate family. Kyle Lock, the senior director of marketing for Butterball, said that's about twice as many as in a typical year.

Broad Breasted White turkeys roam their open-air enclosure on the Shenk Family Farm in Newport, N.C. This year all of the approximately 70 turkeys, which will be 14-16 lbs once they are processed, have been reserved for Thanksgiving.
Madeline Gray for NPR

Butterball's Turkey Talkline is already up and running. The hotline is staffed by trained experts to help answer any and all turkey-related questions people might have during the holiday season.

Like many Americans, Butterball experts Roni McDaniel and her daughter, Coren Hayes, are taking calls from their home office and kitchen table instead of the usual call center. They're noticing a difference in what people are asking about.

"You know, oddly enough, they are looking for smaller turkeys," McDaniel said. They have also noticed an uptick in callers saying it's their first time cooking for Thanksgiving.

McDaniel and Hayes are used to working with newbies. Hayes remembers one particularly frazzled caller who only realized he had bought a chicken instead of a turkey on Thanksgiving Day.

"He seemed very sincere, 'How do I cook this and make it seem like a turkey to my guests because I really don't want to mess this up?' " Hayes said. Along with her standard food safety tips like making sure the bird is up to temperature, she also advised the man to come clean with the guests.

Challenging for farmers to make the adjustment

Joe Shenk holds a turkey for his son, Mason, to pet in the open-air enclosure on their farm. "They're not very smart, but they make up for that by being really friendly and interesting," Shenk said about the turkeys.
Madeline Gray for NPR

While the Butterball Turkey Talkline can answer all types of questions, including how to cook a smaller bird, it doesn't quite offer the solution for farmers, many of whom are finding it challenging to make the adjustment to a trimmer turkey.

"These are in the pipeline for a long time. It's not something we can just turn on and turn off," said Ron Joyce, president of Joyce Farms in Winston-Salem, N.C.

Joyce raises Heritage turkeys, a type of domestic turkey that has historic lineage. He said they committed to raising a specific number of turkeys and their expected size almost a year in advance. His company is also used to selling to chefs at restaurants who often want extra large turkeys.

"There was no crystal ball to tell us that basically 95% of our customer base would be shut down this year," said Joyce.

Improve sales for the holidays

Instead, he said the company pivoted away from restaurants and seized another opportunity.

"What happened is during the panic, in the rush to buy meat and poultry in the grocery stores, a lot of the grocery store shelves were bare for a while, so we increased our direct to consumer," Joyce said.

The average local household has helped them improve sales for the holidays.

Rachel and Joe Shenk are doing well this holiday season. They're sold out for turkeys this year, which didn't even happen last year. And for those customers who requested a smaller bird, the Shenks are helping them get creative.

"I have to go back and be like, 'Well, would you be OK with a half turkey?' " Rachel said.

She's found most of her customers are content with that even though anything less than a whole turkey is not what most people picture on their Thanksgiving table.

It's certainly not the weirdest thing about 2020.

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There's been much reporting about China's brutal repression of Muslim Uyghurs in the northwest Xinjiang region. Religious shrines have been razed, families separated, hundreds of thousands of people sent to detention centers. Less well-known is how China has also clamped down on non-Uyghur Muslims outside of that province. Government is targeting Muslim intellectuals across the country. NPR's Emily Feng has some of their stories.

UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #1: (Vocalizing).

EMILY FENG, BYLINE: The call to prayer sounds out one recent Friday afternoon in Yiwu, a city along China's wealthy east coast. It's an international commercial hub and home to a growing community of Muslims who pour into mosques for Friday prayers. Yiwu is also where 14 people were detained this year for buying books about Islamic history and scripture. Here is a friend of one of them.

UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #2: (Through interpreter) Police interrogated them about their relationship with several Muslim intellectuals and overseas writers. They even printed out the conversation records everyone had on WeChat with these people.

FENG: We agreed to keep this source anonymous. And we are distorting their voice because several people NPR interviewed have been detained and threatened with prison for speaking with a foreign reporter. Chinese security forces now closely surveil religious figures and their families.

UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #2: (Through interpreter) Now the police say, every time they travel, they have to report to the police beforehand when they are leaving and where they are going.

FENG: The detentions signal a new phase in China's crackdown on Islam. After economic and political reforms in the 1980s, Islam saw a revival. But now the government wants to rein religion back in. And it has turned its attention to Muslim intellectuals outside Xinjiang, many from an ethnic group called the Hui.

MA JU: (Through interpreter) Every part of society, not just the Communist Party, is being tasked with making religions, including Islam, more Chinese, which really means getting rid of religion.

FENG: This is Ma Ju, a prominent Hui Muslim who now lives in the U.S. He explains the creeping restrictions on religious communities across China.

MA: (Through interpreter) Imams are prohibited from traveling to work. And the work permits of many imams have been cancelled. The state has closed Arabic schools and has put Communist officials in classes as monitors. By 2017, they were demolishing the domes of mosques.

FENG: Now they're singling out writers and publishers. Rian Thum, an historian who studies Islam in China at the University of Nottingham, explains why.

RIAN THUM: Intellectuals are, in some ways, the bearers of the tradition. They're looked up to as the arbiters, the judges of what is the real Islam. And so they make an attractive target.

FENG: And one of these targets was the Qingzhen Shuju bookstore in Beijing, which for years was the place to buy not just the Quran but also virtually any Islamic or Arabic work. Now the store is padlocked. Piles of books lie untouched inside. I ask, in a neighboring shop, what happened.

UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #3: (Speaking Chinese).

FENG: An employee there tells me he thinks the bookstore was closed three or four years ago because it was selling some kind of religious texts. The bookstore owner was arrested for illegal publishing and terrorism. His friends tell NPR he remains in detention.

A prominent Muslim writer I spoke with remembers what it was like trying to buy books on religion.

UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #4: (Through interpreter) They would take me to a discreet third location. It was like they were selling pornography. I said, how did Chinese Muslims reach such a low point that we have to hide the sale of books?

FENG: But they did reach that low point. So the writers and others moved discussions of scripture and Islamic philosophy online. By 2016, these online forums, too, had been shut down or censored. Last year, the writer fled China, fearing arrest. He, too, requested anonymity because his immediate family remains in China. His exile pains him.

UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #4: (Through interpreter) I'm a Chinese person who had been made an ethnic minority and given the identity of Hui Muslim. But we are actually Chinese. We are compatriots with Han Chinese, the ethnic majority.

FENG: The current atmosphere reminds a Chinese Muslim publisher I spoke to of the stories his parents told him of repression during the Cultural Revolution 50 years ago.

UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #5: (Through interpreter) Every household would burn their religious books in case they were searched. Shredders were sold out. People would flush the book ashes down the toilet, sometimes clogging the pipes. The persecution now is even worse than that time.

FENG: We're keeping the publisher anonymous because at least 40 of his relatives have been detained or sentenced to prison in Xinjiang. He says alternative visions for what it means to be Chinese have narrowed to one aligned with the Communist Party.

UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #5: (Through interpreter) It's like the state only wants its garden to have one type of flower, the red ones. Green, blue or white flowers - if they aren't red, they'll be cut down.

FENG: And Chinese Muslims are not the right kind of flower in Beijing's eyes, despite their insistence that they are, at their core, Chinese citizens who happen to have faith. Emily Feng, NPR News, Yiwu, China. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.